The sentences within a paragraph should explain, develop, or support the idea/claim that was introduced in the topic sentence. (Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, not every paragraph needs one. For instance, a topic sentence wont be needed in a paragraph that continues to develop an idea that was introduced by the topic sentence of the previous paragraph. And although a topic sentence neednt always appear as the first sentence in a paragraph, it is often most effective when it does. The conclusion The basic purpose of your conclusion is to restate your thesis and summarize your argument, but it should not just be a copy of your introduction. In your conclusion, you should make a final effort to convince the reader that you have both established your thesis and offered a cogent argument in its defense.
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211: we will be concerned with both the moral status of earthquake abortion, which for our purposes we may define as the act which a woman performs in voluntarily terminating, or allowing another person to terminate, her pregnancy, and the legal status which is appropriate for. I will argue that, while it is not possible to produce a satisfactory defense of a womans right to obtain an abortion without showing that a fetus is not a human being, in the morally relevant sense of that term, we ought not to conclude. For it is possible to show that, on the basis of intuitions which we may expect even the opponents of abortion to share, a fetus is not a person, and hence not the sort of entity to which it is proper to ascribe full moral. The body The body of your paper should include: (1) an exposition of the views, concepts, and arguments to be discussed, (2) your own arguments in support of your thesis and claims, and (3) a consideration of objections and counterarguments along with your responses. Each body paragraph should present only a single idea or set essay of related ideas, and each should bring your reader one step closer to accepting your thesis and the cogency of your arguments. Because each body paragraph should play a part in the defense of your thesis, you should be mindful of the overall organization of your body paragraphs. A good way to test the strength of both your topic sentences and your argument as a whole is to construct an outline of your paper using only your papers thesis statement and the topic sentences contained in the body of your essay. This outline should contain the logical core of your papers argument, and it should follow a clear logical pattern. The first step in writing an effective body paragraph is the construction of its topic sentence. Just as your thesis statement acts as the controlling idea behind your entire paper, a topic sentence acts as the controlling idea that binds together the sentences within a paragraph.
It should include and an explicit statement of what it is that you will be arguing for (that is, your thesis and define for the reader any terminology thats needed to understand your thesis. The introduction should also map out the structure of your paper, explaining the order in which you will argue for various points and explaining how all those points come together in support of your thesis. To sum up, a good introduction should: (1) be concise, (2) contain a clear statement of your thesis, (3) introduce, very succinctly, your topic and explain why it is important, (4) indicate, very briefly, what the main line of argument will be, and (5) map. Illustration: The following are two examples of the type of introduction that i am looking for. The first is Mary Anne warrens introduction to her paper On the moral and Legal Status of Abortion, The monist 57 (January 1973)—reprinted in Tom. Beauchamp and leroy walters, eds., contemporary Issues in bioethics, 3rd. (Belmont, ca: Wadsworth, 1989.
Of course, you still need be upfront about the problems that your own favored position summary faces, and, in light of those potential problems, you may want to make your thesis somewhat tentative: utilitarianism seems to be the most promising position rather than utilitarianism is correct. The Introduction Get right down to business! Avoid inflated, rhetorical introductory remarks (commonly known as fluff). If, for instance, your paper is on abortion, you shouldnt waste limited space with some irrelevant and summary long-winded spiel about what an important and controversial issue abortion. Nor should you start your paper off with a sentence like, down through the ages, mankind has pondered the problem. nevertheless, you should motivate your paper, explaining what issue or problem that you will be addressing and why its important—just keep it brief. An introduction is best thought of as a readers guide to your paper. It should help make it easier for the reader to follow and understand your paper.
I will propose the following revised version of Singers thesis. And I will argue that this revised version of Singers thesis avoids Arthurs objections. Lastly, i will defend this revised thesis against other potential objections. Note: If you cant see anyway to defend a thesis in its current form, you might suggest how that thesis could be revised so as to avoid the objections leveled by another? I will argue that many of the objections that have been leveled against actutilitarianism can be met and that, on the whole, act-utilitarianism is a rather plausible theory. Nevertheless, i will admit that one serious objection remains, for which I can see no adequate response—namely. However, this does not mean that we should reject the theory, for, as I will show, non-utilitarian theories face the following more serious objection note: Often times, youll find that all the alternative positions face some problem or another. In that case, you can still defend one position over its rivals by arguing that it faces fewer or less serious problems than the others.
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Note: The position you take doesnt have to exhaust the topic. For instance, theres nothing wrong with taking a stand on the morality of abortion in the case of rape while remaining neutral about other cases? I will argue that Thomsons argument isnt cogent. I will demonstrate that there are important differences between killing the violinist (in her Famous violinist Example) and killing a fetus that has been conceived as a result of rape. These differences undermine her argument by analogy for the permissibility of abortion in the case of rape. Note: you dont have to make any positive assertion.
A thesis that asserts that some philosophical position is false or that some philosophers argument is unsound is an interesting and important thesis? I will argue that Arthurs criticisms fail to undermine singers central thesis: that we are morally obligated to donate our surplus income to hunger-relief organizations. I will show that Singer can rebut Arthurs objections. Note: even if you agree entirely with one business of the philosophers that youve read, you can still have something original and important to say. For instance, you could show how that philosopher might rebut criticisms from another? I will argue that Singers thesis needs to be revised in light of Arthurs criticisms, but only slightly.
Note: This is trivial; no reasonable person would disagree? I will discuss objections to moral relativism. Note: Its not enough to say that you will discuss a certain issue; you must state your position on some issue? I believe that the divine command theory is an implausible moral theory. Note: This statement merely reports what one believes; it doesnt assert anything about the plausibility of the divine command theory. A thesis statement must make an assertion about the issue at hand, not about ones beliefs concerning that issue?
I will argue that abortion is wrong. Note: This statement isnt specific enough. Your thesis should explain why, on your view, abortion is wrong? I will argue that donating our surplus income to hunger relief organizations would result in more deaths and more suffering. Note: The issue of whether or not donating our surplus income to hunger relief organizations would result in more deaths and more suffering is an empirical issue, not a philosophical issue. You must address some philosophical issue. Thus a more interesting thesis would address the following issue: If donating our surplus income would alleviate significant suffering and save lives, would we then be morally obligated to do so? Do have a thesis like this? I will argue that even if the fetus is a person with a right to life, abortion is, nevertheless, morally permissible in the case of rape, for the fetus has no right to use the womans body without, at least, her tacit consent, and this.
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Dont have a event thesis like this? I will argue that act-utilitarianism is the most plausible moral theory around. Note: This is too ambitious. There is no chance of adequately defending such a claim in anything shorter than a series of books. To defend such a claim, you would have to compare act-utilitarianism with Kantianism, rule-utilitarianism, virtue ethics, moral relativism, moral subjectivism, divine command theory, etc. And argue that act-utilitarianism does better than all the others in terms of our standards for evaluating moral theories (i. E., consistency, determinacy, intuitive appeal, internal support, etc. A more sensible thesis would focus on defending act-utilitarianism against certain specific objections or would argue that actutilitarianism is more plausible than, say, kantianism with respect to the determinacy of its verdicts? Death and suffering from a lack food, potable water, and basic healthcare is bad.
Your thesis should be quite specific, thereby defining a sharp focus for your paper. Dont make a claim such as people should donate money to hunger-relief organizations. Are you saying everyauto that donating money to hunger-relief organizations is moral obligatory, or are you merely claiming that doing so would be supererogatory? In either case, you should state your reasons for making the claim that you do, for your thesis should provide some hint as to what the main argument will. To sum up, a thesis statement should: be specific. Be narrow enough as to be practicably defended within the length parameters of the assignment. Make an interesting claim, one over which reasonable people might disagree. Provide some hint as to what the main line of argument will. The following are some dos and donts.
problem. Its important to realize that it wont be possible to address every important philosophical issue concerning such a broad topic in just one paper. Youll need to choose a thesis that narrows the focus to something more manageable. Dont be too ambitious here. Youre not going to solve something like the mind-body problem in five, or even twenty, pages. Of course, its also important not to go too far in the opposite direction. Your thesis mustnt be trivial. Instead, your thesis should make an interesting assertion, one over which reasonable people might disagree.
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1, writing a philosophy paper introduction. Constructing a thesis Statement A thesis statement is that sentence or two that asserts your position on a given issue, specifically, the essays position that you will be arguing for in your paper. This thesis statement should appear somewhere in the introduction to your paper. It can be the first sentence, although thats often a rather simplistic and unexciting way to begin your paper. More often, then, a thesis statement should appear at or near the end of the first paragraph or two. The first step in developing a thesis (once you have decided on a topic) is to determine what your position. To do this, you will need to thoroughly review all the relevant course materials. In most cases, you will have been presented with a number of arguments on both sides of the issue.