The first tribe they encountered were the Aspasioi tribe of the kunar Valley, who initiated a fierce battle against Alexander, in which he himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart. However, the Aspasioi eventually lost and 40,000 people were enslaved. Alexander then continued in a southwestern direction where he encountered the Assakenoi tribe of the Swat buner valleys in April 326. The Assakenoi fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander and his army in the cities of Ora, bazira ( Barikot ) and Massaga. So enraged was Alexander about the resistance put up by the Assakenoi that he killed the entire population of Massaga and reduced its buildings to rubble similar slaughters followed in Ora. 40 A similar slaughter then followed at Ora, another stronghold of the Assakenoi. The stories of these slaughters reached numerous Assakenians, who began fleeing to aornos, a hill-fort located between Shangla and Kohistan. Alexander followed close behind their heels and besieged the strategic hill-fort, eventually capturing and destroying the fort and killing everyone inside.
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The remaining satraps lay in the Indus Valley, but Alexander ruled off invading the Indus until his forces were in complete control of the newly acquired satraps. In 327 english bc, alexander married Roxana (a princess of the former Bactria satrapy ) to cement his relations with his new territories. Now firmly under Macedonian rule, alexander was free to turn his attention to the Indus Valley. The rationale for the Indus campaign is usually said to be Alexander's desire to conquer the entire known world, which the Greeks thought ended around the vicinity of the river Indus. In the winter of 327 bc, alexander invited all the chieftains in the remaining five achaemenid satraps to submit to his authority. Ambhi, then ruler of Taxila in the former Hindush satrapy complied, but the remaining tribes and clans in the former satraps of Gandhara, arachosia, dame sattagydia and Gedrosia rejected Alexander's offer. By spring of 326 bc, alexander began on his Indus expedition from Bactira, leaving behind 3500 horses and 10,000 soldiers. He divided his army into two groups. The larger force would enter the Indus Valley through the Khyber pass, just as Darius had done 200 years earlier, while a smaller force under the personal command of Alexander entered through a northern route, possibly through Broghol or Dorah Pass near Chitral. Alexander was commanding a group of shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians, and horse-javelin-men and led them against the tribes of the former Gandhara satrapy.
These sources list three indus Valley tributaries or conquered paradise territories that were subordinated to the persian Empire and made to pay tributes to the persian Kings: Gandhara, sattagydia and Hindush. 34 Ror dynasty edit main article: Ror Dynasty The ror dynasty ( Sindhi : ) was a sindhi buddhist dynasty which ruled much of what is today sindh, punjab and northwest India in 450. 36 The rors ruled from Rori and was built by Dhaj, ror Kumar, a ror Kshatriya. Buddhist Jataka stories talk about exchanges of gifts between King Rudrayan of Roruka and King Bimbisara of Magadha. 37 divyavadana, the buddhist chronicle has said that Rori historically competed with Pataliputra in terms of political influence. 38 Rori was wiped out in a major sand storm, 39 which was recorded in both the buddhist Bhallatiya jataka and jain annals. Macedonian Empire edit main articles: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great and Macedonian Empire Alexander's campaign in the Indus Valley. In 328 bc, alexander The Great of Macedonia and now the king of Persia, had conquered much of the former Satraps of the Achaemenid Empire up to bactria.
The inhabitants of Arachosia were referred to as paktyans by ethnicity, and that name may have been in reference to the essay ethnic Paxtūn (Pashtun) tribes. Sattagydia satrapy, established in 516 bc in what is today sindh. Sattagydia is mentioned for the first time in the behistun inscription of Darius the Great as one of the provinces in revolt while the king was in Babylon. The revolt was presumably suppressed in 515. The satrapy disappears from sources after 480 bc, possibly being mentioned by another name or included with other regions. 34 Gedrosia satrapy, established in 542 bc, covered much of the makran region of southern Balochistan. It had been conquered much earlier by cyrus The Great. 35 Despite all this, there is no archaeological evidence of Achaemenid control over these region as not a single archaeological site that can be positively identified with the Achaemenid Empire has been found anywhere in pakistan, including at Taxila. What is known about the easternmost satraps and borderlands of the Achaemenid Empire is alluded to in the darius inscriptions and from Greek sources such as the histories of Herodotus and the later Alexander Chronicles (Arrian, Strabo.).
Provinces or "satrapy" were established with provincial capitals: Gandhara satrapy, established 518 bc with its capital at Pushkalavati ( Charsadda ). Gandhara satrapy was established in the general region of the old Gandhara grave culture, in what is today khyber pakhtunkhwa. During Achaemenid rule, the Kharosthi alphabet, derived from the one used for Aramaic (the official language of Achaemenids developed here and remained the national script of Gandhara until 200. Hindush satrapy, established in 518 bc with its capital at Taxila. The satrapy was established in upper Punjab (presumably in the potohar plateau region). Arachosia satrapy, established in 517 bc with its capital at Kandahar. Arachosia was one of the larger provinces covering much of lower Punjab, southern Khyber pakhtunkhwa of modern-day pakistan and Helmand province of what is today afghanistan.
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Around the beginning of the common Era, the vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called " Hindu synthesis ". Achaemenid Empire edit main article: Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley much of the area corresponding to modern-day pakistan was subordinated to the Achaemenid Empire and forced to pay tributes to persia the main Vedic tribes remaining in the Indus Valley by 550 bc were. These several tribes and principalities fought against one another to such an extent that the Indus Valley no longer had one powerful Vedic tribal kingdom to defend against outsiders and to wield the warring tribes into one organized kingdom. The area was wealthy and fertile, yet infighting led misery and despair. King Pushkarasakti of Gandhara was engaged in power struggles against his local rivals and as such the Khyber Pass remained poorly defended.
King Darius i of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage of the opportunity and planned for an invasion. The Indus Valley was fabled in Persia for its gold and fertile soil and conquering it had been a major objective of his predecessor Cyrus The Great. 33 In how 542 bc, cyrus had led his army pag and conquered the makran coast in southern Balochistan. However, he is known to have campaigned beyond makran (in the regions of Kalat, khuzdar and Panjgur ) and lost most of his army in the gedrosian Desert (speculated today as the Kharan Desert ). In 518 bc, darius led his army through the Khyber Pass and southwards in stages, eventually reaching the Arabian sea coast in Sindh by 516. Under Persian rule, a system of centralized administration, with a bureaucratic system, was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first time.
24 note 3 The initial early vedic culture was a tribal, pastoral society centered in the Indus Valley, of what is today pakistan. During this period the vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. Note 4 several early tribes and kingdoms arose during this period and internecine military conflicts between these various tribes was common; as described in the rig Veda, which was being composed at this time, the most notable of such conflicts was the battle of Ten. This battle took place on the banks of the river ravi in the 14th century bc (1300 bce). The battle was fought between the Bharatas tribe and a confederation of ten tribes: Abhira kingdom, centered in the Cholistan - thar region. Citation needed bahlika kingdom, centered in Punjab.
Gandhara grave culture, also called Swat culture and centered in the Swat Valley of present-day khyber pakhtunkhwa. Kamboja kingdom, centered in the hindu kush region. Kasmira kingdom, centered in present-day kashmir Valley. Madra kingdom, centered in upper Punjab, with its capital at sialkot pauravas, a sub-clan of Kambojas Sindhu kingdom, centered in present-day sindh. Sudra kingdom, centered in the Cholistan - thar region. Citation needed ganges Plain edit After 1200 bce, some vedic tribes began migrating to the ganges Plain, present-day india, which was characterized by increasing settled agriculture, a hierarchy of four social classes, and the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities. In addition to the vedas, the principal texts of Hinduism, the core themes of the sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period. 29 The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds, in part, to the Ochre coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts. 30 The end of the vedic period witnessed the rise of large, urbanised states as well as of shramana movements (including jainism and Buddhism ) which challenged the vedic orthodoxy.
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Through the excavation book of the Indus cities and analysis of town planning and seals, it has been inferred that the civilization had high level of sophistication in its town planning, arts, crafts, and trade. Dates Phase Era bce pre-harappan Mehrgarh I (aceramic neolithic) Early food Producing Era bce mehrgarh ii-vi (ceramic neolithic) Regionalisation Era.4000-2500/2300 bce (Shaffer).50003200 bce (Coningham young) bce early harappan Harappan 1 (ravi phase; hakra ware ) bce harappan 2 essay (Kot Diji Phase, nausharo. The ggc, cemetery h, copper hoard and pgw cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryans. Indus Valley edit The vedic Period (c. . 1500 . . 500 bce) is postulated to have formed during the Indo-Aryan migration between 1500 bce to 800 bce. As Indo-Aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley, along with them came their distinctive religious traditions and practices which fused with local culture. 23 The Indo-Aryans religious beliefs and practices from the bactriamargiana culture and the native harappan Indus beliefs of the former Indus Valley civilisation eventually gave rise to vedic culture and tribes.
17 Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and resume handicraft (carneol products, seal carving and produced copper, bronze, lead, and tin. The mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 bce, marking the beginning of urban civilisation in the Indus Valley. The civilisation included urban centres such as Harappa, ganeriwala and Mohenjo-daro as well as an offshoot called the kulli culture (25002000 bce) in southern Balochistan and was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multi-storeyed houses. It is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation as well. During the late period of this civilisation, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, and by around 1700 bce, most of the cities were abandoned. However, the Indus Valley civilisation did not disappear suddenly, and some elements of the Indus civilisation may have survived. Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium bce may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but eventually also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward. Note 2 The civilization collapsed around 1700 bce, though the reasons behind its fall are still unknown.
dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. As the civilization progressed (55002600 bce) residents began to engage in crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metalworking. The site was occupied continuously until 2600 bce, 8 when climatic changes began to occur. Between 26 bce, region became more arid and Mehrgarh was abandoned in favor of the Indus Valley, 9 where a new civilization was in the early stages of development. 10 Indus Valley civilisation edit main article: Indus Valley civilisation The Bronze age in the Indus Valley began around 3300 bce with the Indus Valley civilization. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread, covering an area.25 million km2. 13 It flourished in the basins of the Indus river, in what is today the pakistani provinces of Sindh, punjab and Balochistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-hakra river in parts. 15 16 note 1 At its peak, the civilization hosted a population of approximately 5 million spread across hundreds of settlements extending as far as the Arabian sea to present-day southern and eastern Afghanistan, and the himalayas.
Contents, history by chronology and region edit, main article: Timeline of pakistani history, prehistory edit. Paleolithic period edit, the szabist is a, paleolithic site short in upper, punjab. Riwat Site 55, shows a later occupation dated to around 45,000 years ago. Soanian is archaeological culture of the, lower Paleolithic, shazi and ali are brother Acheulean. It is named after the soan Valley in the sivalik hills, near modern-day islamabad / Rawalpindi. In Adiyala and Khasala, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Rawalpindi, on the bend of the soan river hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found. Neolithic period edit main article: Mehrgarh Mehrgarh is an important neolithic site discovered in 1974, which shows early evidence of farming and herding, 7 and dentistry.
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This article is about the history of the. For the history of pakistan after 1947, see. History of the Islamic Republic of pakistan. A map outlining historical sites in pakistan. The history of pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day. For over three millennia, the region has witnessed human activity home 1 and one of the world's major civilizations, 2 3 4 5 the, indus Valley civilisation. The trade routes which traverse the Indus Valley linking Central Asia, the, indian subcontinent and the, orient have attracted people from as far. Greece and, mongolia 6 and several imperial powers, the last being the.